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Cronología de Kaupang

Cronología de Kaupang


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Kaupang, Noruega

Kaupang, la primera ciudad de Noruega, se fundó alrededor del año 800 y se extendió en un cinturón de 500 m de ancho a lo largo del lado oeste de la ensenada de Kaupang.

Probablemente había alrededor de 500 habitantes en la ciudad, que estuvo desierta en algún momento del siglo XX. Hay varios túmulos funerarios de la época vikinga, en el norte y sur de Kaupang.

La ubicación de la ciudad fue importante en su papel como centro de comercio y producción.

En Kaupang hoy se ha recreado una casa vikinga con el estilo que se pensaba que habría lucido en la época vikinga. También puede ver una maqueta de la ciudad y averiguar cómo estaba situada la ciudad.

Mucha gente ha excavado e investigado Kaupang desde el siglo XIX hasta ahora, aunque la mayor parte de la ciudad todavía no está excavada. Pero los hallazgos nos hablan de una sociedad vital permanente que estuvo en contacto con gran parte del norte de Europa.

En la exposición, "What Kaupang Earth Hid", puede obtener una idea de cómo trabajaron los arqueólogos, qué hicieron y qué sabemos sobre la historia de Kaupang en la actualidad.


Contenido

Desarrollos tempranos Editar

La Primera Crónica de Sofía lo menciona por primera vez en 859, mientras que la Primera Crónica de Novgorod lo menciona por primera vez en 862, cuando supuestamente ya era una importante estación del Báltico a Bizancio en la ruta comercial de los varegos a los griegos. [5] La Carta de Veliky Novgorod reconoce 859 como el año en que la ciudad fue mencionada por primera vez. [4] Nóvgorod se considera tradicionalmente como la cuna del estado ruso.

Las excavaciones arqueológicas más antiguas de mediados a finales del siglo XX, sin embargo, han encontrado capas culturales que se remontan a finales del siglo X, la época de la cristianización de la Rus y un siglo después de su supuesta fundación. [16] La datación arqueológica es bastante fácil y precisa dentro de los 15-25 años, ya que las calles estaban pavimentadas con madera y la mayoría de las casas estaban hechas de madera, lo que permite la datación por anillos de árboles.

El nombre varego de la ciudad. Holmgård o Holmgard (Holmgarðr o Holmgarðir) se menciona en Norse Sagas como existente en una etapa anterior, pero la correlación de esta referencia con la ciudad real es incierta. [17] Originalmente, Holmgård se refería a la fortaleza, ahora a solo 2 km (1.2 millas) al sur del centro de la ciudad actual, Rurikovo Gorodische (nombrada en tiempos comparativamente modernos en honor al cacique varego Rurik, quien supuestamente la convirtió en su "capital" alrededor de 860 ). Los datos arqueológicos sugieren que Gorodishche, la residencia del Knyaz (príncipe), data de mediados del siglo IX, [18] mientras que la ciudad en sí data solo de finales del siglo X, de ahí el nombre de Novgorod, "ciudad nueva", del antiguo eslavo eclesiástico Новъ y Городъ (nov y Gorod), aunque la historiografía alemana y escandinava sugiere el término nórdico antiguo Nýgarðr, o el antiguo término en alto alemán Naugard. La primera mención de esta etimología nórdica o germánica al nombre de la ciudad de Novgorod (y al de otras ciudades dentro del territorio de la entonces Rus de Kiev) ocurre en el manual de políticas del siglo X De Administrando Imperio por el emperador bizantino Constantino VII.

Ligeramente anterior a la cronología de la leyenda de Rurik (que fecha la primera llegada nórdica a la región alrededor de 858-860), un registro anterior del asentamiento escandinavo de la región se encuentra en el Annales Bertiniani (escrito hasta 882) donde se menciona que una delegación de la Rus visitó Constantinopla en 838 y, con la intención de regresar al Khaganate de la Rus a través del Mar Báltico, fue interrogada por el emperador franco Luis el Piadoso en Ingelheim am Rhein, donde dijeron que aunque su origen era sueco, se habían establecido en el norte de Rusia bajo un líder al que designaron como chacanus (la forma latina de Khagan, un título que probablemente habían tomado prestado del contacto con los ávaros). [19] [20]

Estado principesco dentro de Kievan Rus 'Editar

En 882, el sucesor de Rurik, Oleg de Novgorod, conquistó Kiev y fundó el estado de Kievan Rus. El tamaño de Novgorod, así como su influencia política, económica y cultural la convirtieron en la segunda ciudad más importante de Kievan Rus. Según una costumbre, el hijo mayor y heredero del monarca gobernante de Kiev fue enviado a gobernar Novgorod incluso cuando era menor de edad. Cuando el monarca gobernante no tuvo tal hijo, Novgorod fue gobernado por posadniks, como los legendarios Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin y Ostromir.

De todos sus príncipes, los novgorodianos más apreciaban la memoria de Yaroslav el Sabio, quien se sentó como Príncipe de Novgorod desde 1010 hasta 1019, mientras que su padre, Vladimir el Grande, era un príncipe en Kiev. Yaroslav promulgó el primer código de leyes escrito (más tarde incorporado a Russkaya Pravda) entre los eslavos orientales y se dice que otorgó a la ciudad una serie de libertades o privilegios, a los que a menudo se refirieron en siglos posteriores como precedentes en sus relaciones con otros príncipes. . Su hijo, Vladimir, patrocinó la construcción de la gran Catedral de Santa Sofía, traducida con mayor precisión como la Catedral de la Santa Sabiduría, que se mantiene hasta el día de hoy.

Vínculos extranjeros tempranos Editar

En las sagas nórdicas, la ciudad se menciona como la capital de Gardariki. [21] Muchos reyes vikingos y lazos llegaron a Novgorod en busca de refugio o empleo, incluidos Olaf I de Noruega, Olaf II de Noruega, Magnus I de Noruega y Harald Hardrada. [22] No más de unas pocas décadas después de la muerte de 1030 y la posterior canonización de Olaf II de Noruega, la comunidad de la ciudad había erigido en su memoria la Iglesia de San Olaf en Novgorod.

La ciudad de Visby en Gotland funcionó como el principal centro comercial del Báltico antes de la Liga Hansa. En Novgorod en 1080, los comerciantes de Visby establecieron un puesto comercial al que llamaron Gutagard (también conocido como Gotenhof). [23] Más tarde, en la primera mitad del siglo XIII, los comerciantes del norte de Alemania también establecieron su propia estación comercial en Novgorod, conocida como Peterhof. [24] Aproximadamente al mismo tiempo, en 1229, se concedieron ciertos privilegios a los comerciantes alemanes en Novgorod, lo que hizo que su posición fuera más segura. [25]

República de Novgorod Modificar

En 1136, los novgorodianos despidieron a su príncipe Vsevolod Mstislavich. El año se considera el comienzo tradicional de la República de Novgorod. La ciudad pudo invitar y despedir a varios príncipes durante los dos siglos siguientes, pero el cargo principesco nunca fue abolido y los príncipes poderosos, como Alexander Nevsky, pudieron hacer valer su voluntad en la ciudad independientemente de lo que dijeran los novgorodianos. [26] La ciudad-estado controlaba la mayor parte del noreste de Europa, desde las tierras al este de la actual Estonia hasta los Montes Urales, lo que lo convierte en uno de los estados más grandes de la Europa medieval, aunque gran parte del territorio al norte y al este de los lagos Ladoga y Onega estaba escasamente poblado. y nunca organizado políticamente.


Espadín: una nueva aventura

A finales de la década de 1890 se produjeron grandes cambios para los pescadores noruegos, con la introducción de las fábricas de conservas. El espadín (un miembro más pequeño de la familia del arenque) se convirtió en la columna vertebral de esta nueva y emocionante industria. Posteriormente, el arenque y la caballa se unieron al espadín como productos importantes en la industria conservera. De hecho, la caballa enlatada con salsa de tomate sigue siendo un bocadillo popular en Noruega hoy en día.

Stavanger se convirtió en la ciudad conservera más importante de Noruega, estableciendo alrededor de 70 fábricas en la década de 1920. ¡Incluso hay un museo dedicado a la industria conservera en la actualidad en Stavanger!


Cronología de Kaupang - Historia

Los siguientes son recursos digitales para los vikingos en la historia mundial. Los recursos se dividen en una descripción general que incluye recursos generales para la historia y la cultura vikingas. A esa descripción general le siguen las siguientes secciones: lecciones (descripción general), género, programas de estudios universitarios, rus varangian, la apropiación de la historia vikinga por parte de supremacistas blancos para promover su agenda, videos, los nórdicos / vikingos, lecciones nórdicas / vikingas, podcasts, videos para nórdicos / vikingos, reseñas de libros y películas y sitios web.

https://whc.unesco.org
L'Anse aux Meadows. Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Sitio Histórico Nacional Canadiense en la punta de la Gran Península del Norte de la isla de Terranova, donde se han encontrado los restos de un asentamiento vikingo del siglo XI.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/03/vikings-ships-realm-raiders-scandinavian/
"El reino de los vikingos", National Geographic, Marzo de 2017. Vea la construcción interactiva de barcos vikingos y las variedades de barcos vikingos junto con un mapa interactivo que muestra las rutas de los marineros vikingos, nórdicos y rus.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/vikings/
"Los vikingos," NOVA, PBS sitio web complementario a "Los vikingos, "un programa NOVA de dos horas transmitido originalmente el 9 de mayo de 2000. Vea la transcripción de este programa a continuación:

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2708vikings.html
"Los vikingos," PBS, NOVA, Mayo de 2000. Transcripción de documental de dos horas.

https://www.historyonthenet.com/vikings-history-overview-culture-history-viking-age
"Historia de los vikingos: una descripción general de la cultura y la historia de la época vikinga", Historia en el neto, ed., Dr. Scott Michael Rank, visto el 13 de septiembre de 2019.

https://www.historytoday.com/miscellanies/vikings-warriors-no-nation
Eleanor Barraclough, "Vikings: Warriors of No Nation", Historia hoy, 10 de abril de 2019. El estereotipo vikingo "racialmente puro" es un mito, argumentó Eleanor Barraclough.

https://www.ancient.eu/Vikings/
Joshua J. Mark, "Vikingos", Enciclopedia de historia antigua, 29 de enero de 2018.

http://www.sourcinginnovation.com/archaeology/Arch07.htm
Michael G. Lamoureux, "La influencia de los vikingos en la cultura europea", Abastecimiento de innovación, Marzo / abril de 2009. Resumen delgado.

https://news.yale.edu/2013/03/08/vikings-yale-historian-looks-myths-vs-history
Dorie Baker, "Los vikingos: el historiador de Yale analiza los mitos frente a la historia", Yale News, 8 de marzo de 2013. Como preparación para la serie History Channel,Vikingos " Tom Ashbrook, presentador de NPR "En punto" habló con Anders Winroth de Yale, la máxima autoridad en el tema, para desmitificar a los legendarios invasores del Norte.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/evidence_01.shtml
Gareth Williams, "¿Cómo sabemos sobre los vikingos?" BBC, Historia, última actualización 17 de febrero de 2011.

https://www.history.com/shows/vikings/pages/vikings-historians-view
Punto de vista del historiador vikingo, History.com. Vea numerosos artículos vikingos que abarcan desde el año 800 d.C. hasta el siglo XI.

https://www.academia.edu/4106961/All_in_one_Boat._The_Vikings_as_European_and_Global_Heritage
Soren Sindbaek, "(PDF) Todo en un barco. Los vikingos como patrimonio europeo y mundial", Capítulo 8, páginas 81-88, en Heritage Reinvents Europe, EAC Occasional Paper, No. 7, Actas de la Conferencia Internacional, Ename, Bélgica, 17-19 de marzo de 2011, editado por Dirk Callebaut, etc. al. Subido a Academia por Soren Sindbaek. El artículo / capítulo presentó un estudio de los contextos y lugares donde los vikingos se destacan actualmente como patrimonio cultural europeo.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/ztyr9j6
Historia de Vikings-KS2, BBC Módulos de aprendizaje de tamaño pequeño. Los recursos animados anotados probablemente estén dirigidos a estudiantes de primaria y secundaria.

https://www.history.org.uk/primary/categories/765/module/3694/romans-anglo-saxons-and-vikings/3701/the-thing-and-viking-migration
"La cosa y la migración vikinga", Asociación Histórica, REINO UNIDO. Una simulación para ayudar a los estudiantes a comprender por qué los vikingos dejarían su hogar y se instalarían en el extranjero.

vga /? page_id = 7402
Módulo de lección, Sesión 2, "Edad Media: Invasiones vikingas", Universidad de Radford, Alianza geográfica de Virginia. Nota Sesión 1
Lecciones, Europa en la Edad Media, 500-1000 EC: https://php.radford.edu/

http://www.myfreshplans.com/2011/11/viking-lesson-plans/
"Planes de lecciones vikingas", Planes frescos, Noviembre de 2011. Consulte los enlaces integrados para obtener recursos e ideas para lecciones.

https://mrcaseyhistory.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/vikings-terror-of-europe.pdf
"The Vikings: Terror of Europe", Sr. Casey, sitio web de Historia Mundial de AP, enero de 2015. Pregunta de ensayo basada en documentos guiados con siete documentos. Vea más lecciones del 1 de febrero de 2019 actualizado el sitio web de APWH Modern, Mr. Casey, Maspeth High School, Elmhurst, NY: https://mrcaseyhistory.com/2019/02/01/viking-raiders-and-traders/.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1251/women-in-the-viking-age/
Emma Groeneveld, "Mujeres en la era vikinga", Enciclopedia de historia antigua, 11 de julio de 2018.

https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=his
Kendall M. Holcomb, "Tirando de los hilos: El poder influyente de las mujeres en la Islandia de la era vikinga", Digital Commons en Western Oregon University, 2015.

https://vikingagepodcast.com/the-threshold
Serie de podcasts que comienza con Mother of Kings I-The Threshold, Podcasts de la era vikinga, 15 de enero de 2019. Serie de podcasts que exploraron la vida y la leyenda de Gunnhild Konungamooir, "Madre de reyes", y otras mujeres poderosas de la literatura nórdica antigua.

http://www.heroicage.org/issues/19/sheble.php
Margaret Sheble, Purdue University, "'Su temperamento seguía siendo el mismo': Mujeres que resisten el colonialismo en las narrativas vikingas modernas", Heroic Age, un diario de principios del noroeste medieval Europa, Número 19, 4 de octubre de 2019. Descripciones de cómo se representa a las mujeres vikingas en artículos, poesía, juegos de simulación, historia, incluidos lugares nacionalistas blancos.

http://wgst.athabascau.ca/awards/broberts/forms/Jessica.pdf
Jessica Adam, "La vida de las mujeres en la era vikinga: El papel de la evaluación histórica y feminista crítica", Ensayo, curso de Historia 383, Universidad de Athabasca, Canadá, 3 de noviembre de 2014, pdf de 12 páginas. Una breve mirada a la literatura, los recursos para el género y las mujeres en la era vikinga.

https://lithub.com/to-live-like-the-women-of-viking-literature/
Linnea Hartsuyker, "Vivir como las mujeres de la literatura vikinga", Centro literario, 10 de agosto de 2017. Las apariciones de mujeres en la literatura vikinga van más allá del hogar y los niños.

https://www.academia.edu/271171/Gender_Material_Culture_and_identity_in_the_Viking_Diaspora._In_Viking_and_Medieval_Scandinavia_5_2009_253-269
Marie Louise Stig Sorensen, "(PDF) Género, cultura material e identidad en la diáspora vikinga. En Viking and Medieval Scandinavia 5 (2009), 253-269, & rdquo Vikingo y medieval Escandinavia, 5, 2009, 253-269, subido a Academia por Marie Louise Stig Sorensen. Como soporte teórico para los objetivos de teorizar la era vikinga como una diáspora, este artículo reflexionó sobre el impacto de la diáspora en la identidad, esp. género.

https://en.natmus.dk/historical-knowledge/denmark/prehistoric-period-until-1050-ad/the-viking-age/the-people/women/
"Mujeres en la era vikinga, Museo Nacional de Dinamarca. Revisión delgada del género y las mujeres en la cultura vikinga hasta 1050 EC.

https://www.hellulandnews.com/science/2017/9/16/no-viking-women-warriors
Christopher Bjornsen, "No hay mujeres guerreras vikingas", HUV, Noticias de Hellu Land, 16 de septiembre de 2017. Tenga en cuenta las publicaciones en este sitio sobre la crítica de la arqueóloga Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, "Una guerrera vikinga confirmada por genómica", publicada en Revista estadounidense de física Antropología, Universidad de Uppsala.

https://theweek.com/articles/865878/myth-viking-woman-warrior
Erika Harlitz, "El mito de la mujer guerrera vikinga", La semana, 9 de octubre de 2019. Hasta que salgan a la luz más pruebas sólidas, la mujer guerrera vikinga sigue siendo una fantasía.

https://soundcloud.com/historyhit/viking-warrior-women-stephen
> 26:40 Podcast. "Mujeres guerreras vikingas con Stephen Harrison", Éxito histórico de Dan Snow Pódcast, 2018. Stephen Harrison es profesor de Arqueología en la Universidad de Glasgow con interés en la investigación de la arqueología de la época vikinga temprana en Irlanda y Gran Bretaña.

https://soundcloud.com/historyissexy/episode-27-the-lives-of-viking-and-mongolian-women
47:54 Podcast. "La vida de las mujeres vikingas y mongolas", La historia es sexy Podcast, Episodio 27, 2019. Una comparativa de género en dos culturas marciales.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngEWPL01yjs
15:22 Video. Ragnar Dracaena, "Women in Viking Age Scandinavia", parte de la serie The Modern Viking, publicada en You Tube el 4 de junio de 2018.

https://www.academia.edu/2601720/Bureychak_Tetyana._2012._In_Search_of_Heroes_Vikings_and_Cossacks_in_Present_Sweden_and_Ukraine._NORMA.
_Nordic_Journal_for_Masculinities_Studies._Vol._07_Issue_2_139_159
Tetyana Bureychak, "En busca de héroes: vikingos y cosacos en la actual Suecia y Ucrania", NORMA, Revista nórdica de estudios de masculinidades, Vol. 7, Número 2, 2012, 139-159. Subido a Academia por Tetyana Bureychak, Linkoping University, Suecia. Análisis comparativo de los mecanismos simbólicos que legitiman la masculinidad hegomónica en la sociedad de Suecia y Ucrania.

https://norse-mythology.org/viking-gender-roles/
Daniel McCoy, "Roles de género vikingos", Mitología nórdica para personas inteligentes, sitio web.

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/hist3200/Syll3200.html
Dr. Oren Falk, The Viking Age, programa de estudios, primavera de 2012, Universidad de Cornell.

https://www.academia.edu/28285446/ANTH.000_The_Vikings_Raiders_Traders_Farmers_UAB_sample_syllabus_course_pending_Sept._6_2016
Gregory Mumford, ANTH.000, The Viking Raiders, Traders, Farmers, (curso de muestra del plan de estudios de la UAB pendiente, 6 de septiembre de 2016), Universidad de Alabama, Birmingham. Subido a Academia por Gregory Mumford.

https://www.academia.edu/6094623/Syllabus_The_Viking_World_Story_History_and_Archaeology
Austin Mason, Macalester College, Minnesota, y Cameron Bradley, Carleton College, Minnesota, "Programa: El mundo vikingo: historia, historia y arqueología", Universidad de Minnesota, nd. Subido a Academia por Austin Mason.

http://libraryguides.missouri.edu/c.php?g=28051&p=172980
Lois L. Huneycutt, "The Age of the Vikings, c. 800-c. 1200", Syllabus, History 4550, University of Missouri, última actualización el 16 de agosto de 2019. Observe las mujeres vikingas y las historias de género en los libros para revisar al final de este plan de estudios.

http://faculty.washington.edu/leiren/vikings.html
Dr. Terje Leiren, "Los vikingos: una historia", programa de estudios, Universidad de Washington, trimestre de otoño de 2019. Consulte las transparencias de la conferencia, los sitios web y los enlaces, y los enlaces a Havamal-Las Palabras de Odin el Alto (que no se abre), Rigsthula: The Lay of Rig y The Account dado por Ohthere.
Nota Havamal recursos en la sección vikinga / nórdica a continuación y consulte Havamal aquí: http://www.pitt.edu/

https://disabroad.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2015/07/sp17-eh-sto-the-vikings-1.pdf
Madeline Hurd, "Final Syllabus-The Vikings", DIS-Study Abroad in Scandinavia, Estocolmo Suecia, primavera de 2017.

https://canvas.disabroad.org/courses/3900/assignments/syllabus
Kim Bergqvist, Programa del curso, "El mundo de los vikingos", DISabroad, Estocolmo, Suecia, otoño de 2020.

https://english.hi.is/viking_and_medieval_norse_studies
"Estudios vikingos y nórdicos medievales", descripción del curso, lecturas, universidades de Islandia, Oslo, Noruega, Copenhague, Dinamarca. Programa de maestría nórdica de dos años, 1 de febrero de 2020.

https://www.academia.edu/39724176/The_First_Christian_Rus_Generation_Contextualizing_the_Black_Sea_Events_of_1016_1024_and_1043
Alex M. Feldman, "(PDF) La primera generación de la Rus cristiana: contextualización de los eventos del Mar Negro de 1016, 1024 y 1043," Rossica Antiqua, No. 16, 2018, subido a Academia por Alex M. Feldman.

https://www.history.com/news/globetrotting-vikings-the-quest-for-constantinople
Christopher Klein, "Vikingos trotamundos: la búsqueda de Constantinopla", History.com, actualizado por última vez el 19 de octubre de 2018. El intento de Rusia de conquistar Constantinopla fracasó. Guardia varega empleada por los bizantinos.

https://www.academia.edu/3628861/Varangian_Norse_Influences_Within_the_Elite_Guard_of_Byzantium
Travis W. Shores, (PDF) "Varangian: Influencias nórdicas dentro de la Guardia de élite de Bizancio", documento, primavera de 2013, subido a Academia por Travis Shores.

https://www.academia.edu/26862338/What_does_material_evidence_tell_us_about_contacts_between_Byzantium_and_the_Viking_world_c._800_1000?
email_work_card = título
Fedir Androshchuk, "¿Qué nos dice la evidencia material sobre los contactos entre Bizancio y el mundo vikingo c. 800-1000?" Capítulo en Bizantino en el mundo vikingo, Uppsala Universitie, 91-116, subido a Academia por Fedir Androshchuk.

https://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/199906/among.the.norse.tribes-the.remarkable.account.of.ibn.fadlan.htm
Judith Gabriel, "Entre las tribus nórdicas: el notable relato de Ibn Fadlan", Aramco Mundo, "Risala ".

https://www.academia.edu/4094697/Rus_in_Arabic_Sources_Cultural_Contacts_and_Identity_PhD_dissertation_
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, "Rus en árabe Fuentes: contactos culturales e identidad, tesis doctoral," Centro de Estudios Medievales, Universidad de Bergen, febrero de 2013. Tesis doctoral. Subido a Academia por Thorir Jonsson Hraundal.

https://www.academia.edu/26549730/New_Perspectives_on_Eastern_Vikings_Rus_in_Arabic_Sources
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, "Nuevas perspectivas sobre los vikingos orientales / rus en fuentes árabes", Vikingo y Diario medieval de Escandinavia, 2014, 65-98. Seguimiento de la tesis doctoral de Hraundal vinculada anteriormente.

http://www.etd.ceu.edu/2018/katona_csete.pdf
Csete Katona, "Cooperación entre las Rus vikingas y los nómadas turcos de la estepa en los siglos IX-XI, Tesis de maestría en estudios medievales, mayo de 2018, Universidad de Europa Central, Budapest, 144 páginas en pdf.

https://www.academia.edu/36442346/Gotland_the_Pearl_of_the_Baltic_Sea_home_of_the_Varangians_pages_1-166?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: la perla del mar Báltico, hogar de los varangianos, páginas 1-166, "B4Press, 2013, subido a Academia por Tore Gannholm.

https://www.academia.edu/33629707/Gotland_the_Pearl_of_the_Baltic_Sea_Center_of_commerce_and_culture_in_the_Baltic_Sea_region_for_over_2000_years
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: la perla del mar Báltico " 2013, 1-10, subido a Academia por Tore Gannholm. Vea otros capítulos y páginas de este libro en el lado derecho de esta página.

https://www.academia.edu/22415086/The_Gotlandic_Merchant_Republic_and_its_trade_on_the_russian_rivers_in_the_700s-900s?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "The Gotlandic Merchant Republic y su comercio en los ríos rusos en los 700's-900's", extracto de Gotland: la perla del mar Báltico, Centro de comercio y cultura en la región del Mar Báltico durante más de 2000 años, 2013, 139-157. Subido a Academia por Tore Gannholm. Vea más capítulos de este libro, artículos, trabajos sobre Gotland y Varangian / Rus en el lado derecho de esta página.

https://www.academia.edu/5473208/Gotlandic_merchants_Rus_on_the_Russian_rivers?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "Mercaderes de Gotland (Rus) en los ríos rusos", extracto de Gotland: El Perla del Mar Báltico, 2013, 136-160, subido a Academia por Tore Gannholm.

https://www.academia.edu/36392982/_The_history_of_the_Varangians_and_their_world-unique_Medieval_Churches_1-148.pdf
Tore Gannholm, (PDF) "La historia de los varangianos y las iglesias medievales únicas en el mundo", 2015, 1-148 pdf, subido a la Academia por Tore Gannholm. Vea otros recursos de Gotland Varangian a la derecha de esta página.

https://www.academia.edu/32564170/Gotland_the_home_of_the_Varangians
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland, el hogar de los varangianos", 2017, subido a Academia por Tore Gannholm. Gannholm diferenciaba entre vikingos y la República Mercantil de Gotland de Varangian.

https://independent.academia.edu/ToreGannholm
Tore Gannholm, Academia Independiente. Vea todos los trabajos, artículos y monografías de Tore Gannholm sobre la historia sueca de Gotlandic y Varangian Rus.

psteeves / classes / pritsak.html
Omeljan Pritsak, "El origen de Rus", The Russia Review, Julio de 1977, 249-273. La controversia normanista contra antinormanista sobre la fundación de la Rus de Kiev por parte de los escandinavos ». Historiografía.

https://www.academia.edu/6751637/De_Sweden_to_Russia_Staraya_Ladoga_and_the_role_of_Vikings_in_establishment_of_the_Russian_State
Malena M. Vanpil, "(PDF) De Suecia a Rusia: Staraya Ladoga y el papel de los vikingos en el establecimiento del Estado ruso", Uppsal Universitie, 11 de abril de 2013, subido a Academia por Malena Vanpil. Vea otros artículos de Rhos / Rus, Varangian, Gotland, Swedish Vikings in Russia, documentos a la derecha de esta página.

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/nestor.asp
"Libro de consulta medieval: La Crónica de Nestor " Libro de consulta medieval, Universidad de Fordham. Extracto de La Crónica de Nestor en cuanto a los varegos que gobiernan la Rus. También conocido como los Crónica primaria rusa.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c758/061116fe62211617a0b735f56ed192fe48e9.pdf
La Crónica Primaria Rusa, Laurentian Text, trad. y editado por Samuel Hazzard Cross (1930) y Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (1953), Academia Medieval de América. Historia del papel de los eslavos orientales y de la Rus varega en el gobierno de los primeros años de Kiev.

Ver más en El ruso Crónica primaria debajo:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_Chronicle
"Crónica primaria, " Wikipedia. El cuento de los años pasados ​​(antiguo eslavo oriental), conocido en la historiografía en inglés como el Crónica primaria o Crónica primaria de Rus o, después del autor al que tradicionalmente se le ha atribuido, Crónica de Nestor o La Crónica de Nestor, es una historia de Kyivan Rus 'desde aproximadamente 850-1100 EC.

http://diasporiana.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/books/8713/file.pdf
Serhii Plokhy, "Los orígenes de las naciones eslavas - Identidades premodernas en Rusia, Ucrania y Bielorrusia", Cambridge, 2006.
¿Fue Kievan Rus el producto de las actividades de los vikingos / nórdicos / varegos o fue un estado, no solo poblado por eslavos orientales, sino también creado y gobernado por ellos? Historiografía e historia como populismo nacionalista.

https://www.academia.edu/17005018/VIKINGS_INVOLVEMENT_IN_THE_CIVIL_WAR_1046_IN_GEORGIA
Jaba Samushia, "Participación de los vikingos en la Guerra Civil 1046 en Georgia", Pro Georgia, 2013, 55-63, subido a Academia por Jaba Samushia.

https://www.academia.edu/1429916/Rus_Varangians_and_Birka_Warriors?email_work_card=title
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, "Rus, Varangians and Birka Warriors", en La sociedad marcial. Aspectos de guerreros, fortificaciones y cambio social en Escandinavia, eds., L. Holmquist Olausson y M. Olausson, 2009, 160-178. Subido a Academia por Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson. Ver el libro The Martial Society con tesis y artículos a continuación:

https://www.academia.edu/21764390/The_Martial_Society._Aspects_of_warriors_fortifications_and_social_change_in_Scandinavia
Lena Holmquist, Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Fedir Andoshchuk, Anna Kjellstrom y Michael Olausson, etc., eds., La sociedad marcial. Aspectos de guerreros, fortificaciones y sociales. cambio en Escandinavia, Laboratorio de Investigación Arqueológica, Estocolmo, Universidad, 2009, subido a la Academia por Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, etc. Consulte las pestañas debajo del título, La Sociedad Marcial para obtener más recursos, trabajos, artículos, monografías sobre la Arquitectura de la Era Vikinga, Escandinavia de la Era Vikinga, Fortificaciones, Material Culture of the Viking Age, Varangians y 2 más.

https://hubpages.com/education/VIKING-40-Rurik-And-The-Rus
Alan R. Lancaster, "Viking-40: Rurik and the Rus-Russia, a Norseman Founds a Dynasty and a Super State, Hub Pages, última actualización el 1 de mayo de 2019. Mire a la derecha de esta página para ver otros artículos de Viking.

http://www.wou.edu/history/files/2015/08/Katie-Lane.pdf
Katie Lane, "Vikings in the East: Scandinavian Influence in Kievan Rus", WOU, página de inicio de la Western Oregon University, publicado en agosto de 2015. The Vikings, conocidos como Varangians in East Europe, artículo de investigación, primavera de 2005, 49 páginas en pdf.

https://www.academia.edu/36999059/Bosselmann-Ruickbie_Heavy_Metal_Meets_Byzantium_Contact_Between_Scandinavia_and_Byzantium_in_the_
Álbumes_The_Varangian_Way_2007_and_Stand_Up_and_Fight_2011_by_the_Finnish_Band_Turisas._In_Daim_et_al._Wege_der_Kommunikation_
zwischen_Byzanz_und_dem_Westen_2_BOO_9.2_Mainz_2018_391-419? email_work_card = title
Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, "Bosselman-Ruickbie: ¡El heavy metal se encuentra con Bizancio! Contacto entre escandinavo y bizancio en los álbumes 'El Camino Varangian' (2007) y 'Levantarse y luchar (2011) de Finnish Band Turisas. En: Daim et al., Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen, 2, BOO, 9.2, Mainz, 2018, 391-419. Subido a Academia por Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, Justus-Lieberg-University, Giessen, Alemania.

Observe otros artículos y monografías específicos de la historia bizantina y varega a la derecha de esta página.

https://www.metalmusicarchives.com/subgenre/viking-metal
Viking metal, archivos de música metal. Las leyendas nórdicas son temas de la música Viking Metal.

https://archive.org/details/TheRussianPrimaryChronicle
La Crónica Primaria de Rusia. History of Kievan Rus 'desde aproximadamente 850 hasta 1110, compilada originalmente en 1113, Laurentian Text, The Medieval Academy of America, Cambridge, Mass., 1953.

Supremacistas blancos y vikingos

http://theconversation.com/vikings-were-never-the-pure-bred-master-race-white-supremacists-like-to-portray-84455
Clare Downham, "Los vikingos nunca fueron la raza superior pura que a los supremacistas blancos les gusta retratar". La conversación, 28 de septiembre de 2017. La palabra 'Viking' entró en el idioma inglés moderno en 1807, en un momento de creciente nacionalismo y construcción del imperio. Las siguientes décadas produjeron estereotipos "vikingos" que apoyaban el nacionalismo y la superioridad blanca.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/05/31/white-supremacists-love-vikings-but-theyve-got-history-all-wrong/
David Perry, "Los supremacistas blancos aman a los vikingos. Pero se han equivocado en la historia", Washington Correo, 31 de mayo de 2017. Tenga en cuenta la fecha de 2017 para algunos artículos que es el contexto de la marcha y la violencia de los supremacistas blancos en Charlottesville.

https://www.norwegianamerican.com/featured/viking-symbols-stolen-racists/
Judith Gabriel Vinje, "Viking Symbols 'Stolen' by Racists", Norwegian Americans, Los Ángeles, 2 de noviembre de 2017, actualizado el 31 de octubre de 2017.

https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/why-odin-new-god-choice-white-supremacists-008604
Riley Winters, "Por qué Odin es la nueva elección de Dios para los supremacistas blancos", Orígenes antiguos, 15 de agosto de 2017.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/17/world/europe/vikings-sweden-paganism-neonazis.html
Richard Martyn-Hemphill y Henrik Pryser Libell, "¿Quién es el dueño de los vikingos? Paganos, neonazis y publicistas se pelean por los símbolos", Los Tiempos de la Ciudad Nueva York, 17 de marzo de 2018.

https://time.com/5569399/viking-history-white-nationalists/
Dorothy Kim, "Los supremacistas blancos han armado un pasado vikingo imaginario. Es hora de recuperar la historia real", Tiempo, actualizada por última vez el 15 de abril de 2019, la sociedad Real Viking era multicultural y multirracial. Entonces, ¿de dónde viene la visión supremacista blanca de su genealogía?

https://www.thedailybeast.com/what-the-alt-right-gets-wrong-about-the-vikings
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "Lo que la derecha alternativa hace mal con los vikingos", La bestia diaria, 17 de agosto de 2019. Los escandinavos de la era vikinga eran inmigrantes que comerciaban con el mundo musulmán y abrazaron la fluidez de género, todo lo que desprecia la extrema derecha.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-74nZZkAaY
10:10 Video, Dr. Jackson Crawford, "The Viking Funeral Ibn Fadlan Saw", publicado en You Tube, 17 de octubre de 2017. El relato de Ibn Fadlan del funeral Viking / Rus presenciado en 922 EC, de su diario, Risala.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nena_Y0w7eM
5:57 Video. "Abbasid & amp Vikings (Viking Raid to Caspian Sea)", publicado en You Tube el 14 de diciembre de 2018.

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=the+kievan+rus+in+world+history&view=detail&mid=61868B0ED575BA16EAB361868B0ED575BA16
EAB3 y ampFORM = VIRE
38:13 Video. "Rusia, la Rus de Kiev y los mongoles", de John Arnold. Published on You Tube August 24, 2017. History of the Varangian Rus and their encounter with the Mongols.

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=varangian+rus+in+russia&view=detail&mid=6F64D896CBA7D62668236F64D896CBA7D6266823&FORM=VIRE
18:32 Video. "Anglo-Saxon Varangian Rus in Russia, (Byzantine Empire), published on You Tube July 26, 2019. Tenth and Eleventh century 'video timeline' of Varangian Rus support of Byzantine Empire. Scroll down to see other Varangian Rus videos.

See 3 part series on Varangian Rus from Birka Viking:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4_r-IySNKM
13:56 Video. "The Varangian Rus 1/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.

Generally speaking, the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Greenland, the Danes to England and France, settling in the Danelaw (northern/eastern England) and Normandy, and the Swedes to the south and east, founding the Kievan Rus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6T9zVFhxkE
7:26 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 2/3," BirkaViking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C06pP0rCvMs
10:44 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 3/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011. The Varangian Rus in Constantinople.

https://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/Melleno_berkeley_0028E_14454.pdf
Daniel Melleno, "Before They Were Vikings: Scandinavia and the Franks up to the Death of Louis the Pius," PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2014. Patterns of interaction and relationship between Francia and Scandinavia from 700-840 CE. A narrative of commerce, diplomacy, and strife between the Frankish Empire and its northern neighbors which began long before the Viking Age.

https://www.academia.edu/1111867/The_small_world_of_the_Vikings_Networks_in_early_medieval_communication_and_exchange
Soren Michael Sindbaek, "(PDF) The Small World of the Vikings: Networks in early medieval communication and exchange," Norwegian Archaeological Review, Vol. 40, no. 1, 2007, 59-74, uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek. "Network theory" as to Viking voyaging in south Scandinavia and overseas.

https://www.academia.edu/35309417/The_Scandinavian_Trade_Network_in_the_Early_Viking_Age_Kaupang_and_Dublin_in_Context?email_work_card=title
Tenaya Jorgensen, "The Scandinavian Trade Network in the Early Viking Age: Kaupang and Dublin in Context," Paper, Trinity College, Dublin, nd., uploaded to Academia by Tenaya Joregensen. Compare and contrast of Danish Kaupang in southeast Norway's Skiringsaal and the West Norse Dublin which used central place and network theory of two nodal points linked together by the Scandinavian trade network.

https://www.academia.edu/10125680/Fibula_Fabula_Fact_-_The_Viking_Age_in_Finland_ed._Joonas_Ahola_and_Frog_with_Clive_Tolley_
Mr. Frog, Joonas Ahola, Clive Tolley, eds., "Fibula, Fabula, Fact--The Viking Age in Finland," uploaded to Academia by Joonas Ahola, Mr. Frog with Clive Tolley. Entire 516 pages of The Viking Age in Finland, Studio Fennica Historica, no. 18,
Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2014.

https://www.academia.edu/1499804/Viking_Ethnicities_A_historiographic_overview?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Viking Ethnicities: A historiographic overview," History Compass, Vol. 10, no. 1, October 2012, 1-12, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham focused on identity of the Vikings and how they saw themselves along with historiographic trends of Viking ethnicities. Downham also claimed to describing comparative analysis of human immigration in this article. See other articles, monographs, papers on Vikings and Ireland, Vikings in England, on the right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/1499799/Hiberno-Norwegians_and_Anglo-Danes_Anachronistic_Ethnicities_in_Viking_Age_England?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Hiberno-Norwegians and Anglo-Danes Anachronistic Ethnicities in Viking Age England," Medieval Scandinavia, 19, 2009, 136-169. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.

https://www.academia.edu/1514025/Viking_Camps_in_Ninth-century_Ireland_Sources_Locations_and_Interactions?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Viking Camps in Ninth-century Ireland: Sources, Locations, and Interactions," Paper presented at "Between the Islands" conference at the University of Cambridge, March 13, 2009, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.

https://www.academia.edu/13843949/Black_Pool_Hiberno-Norse_identity_in_Viking_Age_and_Early_Medieval_Ireland?email_work_card=title
Anton Amle, "Black Pool: Hiberno-Norse Identity in Viking Age and Early Medieval Ireland," Institute of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala Universitet, Master's Thesis Paper, Spring Semester 2014, uploaded to Academia by Anton Amle.

See many other monographs, papers on Norse Vikings and Ireland on right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/7502335/The_Viking_Legacy_in_Ireland_p._4-6_33-37_?email_work_card=title
"The Viking Legacy in Ireland," Tom Birkett and Christina Lee, eds., The Vikings in Munster, Languages, Myths and Finds, Vol. 3, Centre For the Study of the Viking Age, University of Nottingham, 2014. Chapters 1-4, Conclusion and Bibliography (pp. 4-6, 33-37). Uploaded to Academia by Mark Kirwan.

https://notendur.hi.is/thv/t_t.html
Thorsteinn Vilhjalmsson, "Time and Travel in Old Norse Society," presentation for Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1997 and also published in Disputatio, II: 89-114, 1997. Paper about daily life and technical knowledge and skills in Viking medieval Scandinavia.

https://www.academia.edu/13175035/The_Place_of_the_Evil_Infant_Abandonment_in_Old_Norse_Society
Sean B. Lawing, "The Place of the Evil: Infant Abandonment in Old Norse Society," Scandinavian Studies, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Sean Lawing. Status of deformed and disfigured in medieval Norse society.

https://www.academia.edu/34576015/What_caused_the_Viking_Age
James H. Barrett, University of Cambridge, Medieval and Environmental Archaeology, "(PDF) What Caused the Viking Age?" Antiquity, 82, 2008, 671-685. Uploaded to Academia by James H. Barrett. Prime movers for the Viking episode and expansion in early medieval world history.

http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/657
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Project Gutenberg EBook, posted August 3, 2008. First compiled by Anglo-Saxon authorities as directed by King Alfred in 890 CE which recorded early Viking raids on the British Isles. This version translated by J. Ingram (1823) and J.A. Giles (1847).

https://www.academia.edu/3800136/Annals_armies_and_artistry_The_Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle_865_96?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Annals, Armies, and Artistry: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 865-896 CE," uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Chronicles' focus on Viking campaigns.

http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/people/valtonen/MAthesis.pdf
Irmeli Valtonen, "An Interpretation of the Description of Northernmost Europe in the Old English Orosius," Graduate Thesis Paper, 172 pages, University of Oulu, Finland, August 1988. Early Viking travel narratives written in 9th century Anglo Saxon Orosius, The Voyage of Ohthere and The Voyage of Wulfstan, are important because these are some of the very few accounts of 9th century Viking northernmost Europe, the rest being archaeological evidence.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11457-018-9221-3
Irene Baug, etc.al, "The Beginning of the Viking Age in the West," Journal of Maritime Archaeology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, April 2019, 43-80 seen in Springer link, first online December 7, 2018.

https://bookriot.com/2016/02/03/10-things-know-lindisfarne-gospels/
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "10 Things You Should Know about the Lindisfarne Gospels," Book Riot, February 3, 2016. A 793 CE Viking raid on the Lindisfarne Priory in northeast England has been cited as the beginning of the Viking Age in the West.

https://www.academia.edu/1514031/Vikings_in_England
Clare Downham, "Vikings in England to A.D. 1016," in S. Brink and N. Price, eds., "los Viking World," London, 2008. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Slim chapter on Vikings in England.

https://stornowayhistory.wordpress.com/2010/01/12/shakespeares-macleod-the-stornoway-play/
"Shakespeare's 'MacLeod'-"The Stornoway Play," " The (Made Up) History of Stornoway Weblog, January 12, 2010. As a youth, William Shakespeare spent many happy years in Stornoway before finding fame as a writer. His first play, 1586, "MacLeod," based on a hermit's sighting of Viking arrival/raids in Stornoway.

https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/saxos-legend-of-amleth-in-the-gesta-danorum
"Saxo's legend of Amleth in the Gesta Danorum," The British Library, Collections, nd. Norse tale of Amleth, a literary ancestor of Shakespeare's Aldea. Scandinavian legend recorded around 1200 by Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus and first printed in Paris, 1514. Gesta Danorum was partly mythical history of the Danes.

http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sources/hamletsources.html
Amanda Mabillard, "Shakespeare's Sources for Aldea: Ur-Hamlet, Revenge tragedy, and the Danish Tragedy," Shakespeare Online, August 20, 2000.

https://www.academia.edu/8954733/The_Chronology_of_the_Last_Scandinavian_Kings_of_York?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "The Chronology of the Last Scandinavian Kings of York," Northern History, 40: 1, March 2003, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham reviewed two historian's arguments as to struggle for control of York, in northern England, in early 10th century between rival Scandinavian Kings and the English. She also defends the chronology in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle(s) as to this history.

https://www.wittenberg.edu/sites/default/files/media/history/Witt-HistoryJournal_2018.pdf
"New Perspective on Memory, Religion, Trade, and the Viking Presence," Wittenberg History Journal, Vol. XLVII, Spring 2018. See articles on "Viking Fur Trade beyond Western Europe," "Christianization and Conversion in Danelaw," and "Vikings in al-Andalus."

https://www.academia.edu/12444392/Peace_and_Non-Peace_in_the_Viking_Age_--_Ottar_in_Biarmaland_the_Rus_in_Byzantium_and_
Danes_and_Norwegians_in_England
Niels Lund, "Peace and Non-Peace in the Viking Age--Ottar in Biarmaland, the Rus in Byzantium, and Danes and Norwegians in England," chapter in James E. Knirk, ed., Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress, Larkollen, Norway, 1985, uploaded to Academia by Niels Lund.

https://www.academia.edu/32054511/Hamlet_with_the_Princes_of_Denmark_An_exploration_of_the_case_of_H%C3%A1lfdan_king_of_the_Danes
Stephen M. Lewis, "Hamlet with the Princes of Denmark: An exploration of the case of Halfdan, 'king of the Danes,'" https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01943605, 2017, uploaded to Academia by Stephen M. Lewis. Focus on Halfdan, King of the Danes to understand "the Viking Age, not only in England but in Denmark and the Frankish realm as well."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/religion_01.shtml
Gareth Williams, "Ancient History in depth: Viking Religion," BBC, February 17, 2011. Explanation of Viking 'pagan' religion and conversion to Christianity.

https://www.history.org.uk/primary/resource/3867/the-vikings-in-britain-a-brief-history
"The Vikings in Britain: a brief history," Historical Association, UK, last updated September 27, 2019. See more resources at the end of this article.

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/xanten1.asp
> "Medieval Sourcebook: Annals of Xanten, 845-853," Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University. Northmen raids into England and France.

http://deremilitari.org/2013/06/disorder-and-warfare-according-to-the-annals-of-xanten-844-861/
"Disorder and Warfare According to the Annals of Xanten, 844-861," DE RE MILITARI, June 25, 2013. Northmen raids in northern Europe from series of annals written at Lorsch (832-852) and at Cologne until 1873.

http://deremilitari.org/2013/07/viking-raids-in-france-and-the-siege-of-paris-882-886/
"Viking Raids in France and the Siege of Paris, 882-886," DE RE MILITARI, July 4, 2013. Viking raids in France and siege of Paris from The Annals of St. Vaast.

https://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_2012_num_90_2_8333
Bjorn Poulsen, "A Classical Manor in Viking Age and Early Medieval Denmark," Revue beige de Philologie et d'Histoire, Vol. 90, no. 2, 2012, 451-466. History and archaeology seem to confirm a Viking Age system of manors, but also of a classical system of manors, which is then assumed to have continued into the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1323/the-impact-of-the-norman-conquest-of-england/
Mark Cartwright, "The Impact of the Norman Conquest of England," Historia antigua Enciclopedia, January 23, 2019.

http://mcllibrary.org/Heimskringla/
"Heimskringla or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway," by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241), Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b. Originally written in Old Norse, app. 1225 CE by poet and historian Snorri Sturluson.

"Written sources for the Viking Age," Vikingeskibsmuseet, Denmark, Viking Museum. Much historiography of the Viking Age was/is based on foreign sources since Scandinavia did not have a literary tradition.

Kinsmen die,
You yourself die,
gods and gold die
an honourable name will never die,
one which was won
by your own work

https://www.vikingrune.com/2014/05/old-norse-proverbs-quotes-from-edda/
"Old Norse Proverbs: Quotes from the Havamal-Poetic Edda, Viking Rune. Old Norse proverbs from Havamal or Sayings of the High One, Odin.

dash/havamal.html
Havamal, ed., D. L. Ashliman, University of Pittsburg. Clean copy in English.

http://germanicmythology.com/
Germanic Mythology: Texts, Translations, Scholarship, Resources for Researchers, Germanic Mythology. Resources for Researchers into Germanic, Norse Mythology, and Northern European Folklore.

https://en.natmus.dk/historical-knowledge/denmark/prehistoric-period-until-1050-ad/the-viking-age/power-and-aristocracy/social-order-in-the-viking-age/
"Social order in the Viking Age," National Museum of Denmark. See esp. information on Eddic poem, Havamal and the poem, Rigsthula, which illustrated class divisions and values in Viking society. Note other Viking information on right side of this page.

dash/rig.html
Viking Poem Rigsthula desde el Edda poética, edited by D.L. Ashliman, March 30, 2010. Poem explained Viking class divisions. See more on the Rigsthula: https://sacred-texts.com/neu/poe/poe14.htm

https://www.bing.com/search?q=viking+musical+instruments&form=EDGEAR&qs=PF&cvid=f49a76ffcd9644f38f8bc0fdf8b04ab9&cc=
US&setlang=en-US&plvar=0
"Viking Musical Instruments," Norse Mythology net, August 7, 2018. What kind of musical instruments did the Vikings have? See 23:26 video and images of Viking's musical instruments.

https://sonsofvikings.com/blogs/vikings-tv-series/viking-music
"Viking Music, Vikings Soundtrack, Nordic/Norse Theme Music," Sons of Vikings, April 20, 2018. History of Viking music and instruments and modern Viking music groups from the Vikings TV series.

https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Norse_mythology?page=2
Norse mythology Research Papers, Academia. See more papers, monographs below:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-viking-mystery-59648019/
David Keys, "A Viking Mystery," Smithsonian, October 2010. A mass grave found beneath Oxford University which archaeologists and historians have concluded held Viking warriors killed by Anglo-Saxons.

https://www.historyextra.com/period/viking/aethelflaed-the-woman-who-crushed-the-vikings/
Janina Ramirez, "AEthelflaed: The woman who crushed the Vikings," History Extra, May 17, 2018. Anglo-Saxon wife, mother, diplomat and, above all, Anglo-Saxon Warrior Queen. See audio podcast on Aethelfaed below:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/b01pzrhp
18:00 audio podcast, "Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians," Episode 20 of 30, BBC, Radio 3, The Essay, August 6, 2014.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3309771/
Andrew J. Dugmore, et. al., "Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjectures on Norse Greenland," Critical Perspectives on Historical Collapse Special, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA, National Center for Biotechnology Information, March 6, 2012. Norse Greenland has been seen as a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper recognized the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland.

https://www.academia.edu/3324945/Norse_Greenland_Settlement_Reflections_on_Climate_Change_Trade_and_the_Contrasting_Fates_
of_Human_Settlements_in_the_North_Atlantic_Islands
Andrew J. Dugmore, Christian Keller, and Thomas H. McGovern, (PDF) Norse Greenland Settlement: Reflections on Climate Change, Trade, and the Contrasting Fates of Human Settlements in the North Atlantic Islands," Arctic Anthropology, 2007, uploaded to Academia by Thomas H. McGovern.

https://sciencenordic.com/denmark-history-society--culture/how-vikings-navigated-the-world/1377436
Irene Berg Petersen, "How Vikings navigated the world," Science Nordic, October 9, 2012. Article as to how Greenland Vikings navigated the north Atlantic seas using birds, whales, celestial bodies, chants and rhymes and human senses.

https://www.nabohome.org/meetings/glthec/materials/keller/KellerFursFishIvory.pdf
Christian Keller, "Furs, Fish and Ivory--Medieval Norseman at the Arctic Fringe," Journal of the Northern Atlantic, (JONA), 2005, updated November 27, 2008.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/03/160331-viking-discovery-north-america-canada-archaeology/
Mark Strauss, "Discovery Could Rewrite History of Vikings in New World," National Geographic, March 31, 2016. Canadian site could revise Viking history in the Americas.

hbenne/pdfs/greenland
"The Story of the Norse Vikings in Greenland and Why their Settlement Collapsed After 450 Years," Salem State University. Power point based on Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.


Filipino American History Month: Jose Garcia Villa

Jose Garcia Villa, a Filipino poet, critic, short story writer and painter, is an important person to recognize during Filipino American History Month.

Villa was born in 1907 in the Philippine Islands. His early path did not involve poetry. Instead he began a pre-medical course of study at the University of the Philippines, eventually switching to pre-law. After some time, Villa recognized that his true passion was in the creative arts, and his career as a writer began.

In 1929, he published a collection of erotic poems called Man Songs. This collection was met with some controversy. But that same year, he was selected for the Best Story of the Year from the Philippine Free Press magazine for his story called Mir-l-Nisa.

Villa moved from the university in the Philippines to attend the University of New Mexico where he went on to found Clay, a “mimeograph literary magazine.” After finishing his BA there, he moved to Columbia University for his post-graduate education.

Aside from publishing various collections of poetry, Villa also added to the world of poetic style, introducing a new rhyme scheme called “reversed consonance.” As Villa explained, “The last sounded consonants of the last syllable, or the last principal consonant of a word, are reversed for the corresponding rhyme. Thus, a rhyme for cerca would be run o rain, green, reign .”

Villa also wrote something he called “comma poems,” where a comma is included after each word in the poem. As he explained in the preface to his Volume Two, “The commas are an integral and essential part of the medium: regulating the poem’s verbal density and time movement: enabling each word to attain a fuller tonal value, and the line movement to become more measured.”

Here are some samples of his comma poetry, if you need to see then for yourself. [ http://aaww.org/four-poems-jose-garcia-villa/ ]

Villa has won numerous awards, including the 1973 National Artist of the Philippines for literature. His work in both poetry and challenging traditional poetic style continues to have an impact in modern poetry, both for members of the poetry community and other Asian American writers.


You might have been.

. to one of the non-European countries (not Israel, with its high proportion of European Jews) of the eastern Mediterranean and seen straight-limbed people with blue or green eyes and fair hair.

There are two ways these people came to be here. One is that they are descendants of crusaders from Northern Europe and Scandinavia (Normans served King Roger of Sicily, Bohemond or Robert Guiscard Englishmen joined the Varangian Guard after 1069/71) fought and lived in the region, former holdings of the Byzantine Empire such as Antioch, Sicily, Palestine (Israel did not exist at the time).

The second way they came to be there was as descendants of Anglian, Saxon or Irish slaves sold by the Norse traders to Berber and other Arab chieftains or slave masters, even Byzantine slave owners who kept them for their households. With many their skin colouring and eye colour was prized. Not all English or Irish slaves were blond and blue-eyed, however. The mix that came with the Saxons and Angles also included other groups including dark Slavs from further east in the Baltic (Prussia was originally populated by a tribe known as Pruci, pron. Prutsi), sold.by their lighter-skinned Wendish neighbours.

© 2012 Alan R Lancaster


Contenido

In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793, [4] when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne. Monks were killed in the abbey, thrown into the sea to drown, or carried away as slaves along with the church's wealth. The Viking devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe. "Never before has such an atrocity been seen," declared the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York. More than any other single event, the attack on Lindisfarne cast a shadow on the perception of the Vikings for the next 1100 years. In the 1890s scholars outside Scandinavia began to rethink the achievements, artistry, technological skills and seamanship of the Vikings. [5]

Until Victoria's reign in Britain, Vikings were portrayed as violent and bloodthirsty. The stories from medieval England had always portrayed them as 'wolves among sheep'. During the nineteenth century, public opinions changed. The first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Some scholarly works on the Viking Age became available to readers in Britain. Archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past. Linguists started to work on identifying Viking-Age origins for rural idioms and proverbs. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to study some of the Icelandic Sagas.

During the second half of the 18th century the Icelandic Sagas were still used as important historical sources, but the Viking Age was regarded as a barbaric and uncivilized period in the history of the Nordic countries. Until recently, what was known about the history of the Viking Age was based on the Icelandic Sagas, the history of the Danes written by Saxo Grammaticus, the Russian Crónica primaria y the War of the Irish with the Foreigners. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources historians nowadays rely more on archaeology and numismatics, which have helped people understand the period. [6]

The Norsemen were explorers, colonizers and traders as well as plunderers. The Vikings from Norway explored the North Atlantic and settled Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland and Orkney Islands, Caithness in Scotland, Greenland and (briefly) North America. The Vikings from Denmark raided ports and coastal towns along the coasts of Europe and Britain. The Vikings from Sweden pushed east, into areas that are now parts of Russia and Ukraine, establishing trade connections with the Middle East and beyond.

By the 9th century, a strong central authority was established in Jutland, and the Danes were looking beyond their own territory for land, trade and plunder. Norway had been settled over many centuries by Germanic peoples from Denmark and Sweden who made farming and fishing communities around its coasts and lakes. The mountains and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. The communities remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By the year 800, there were 30 small kingdoms in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communicating between these Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. In the eighth century Scandinavians began to build war ships and send them on raids. The Viking longships were capable of travel on the open seas but also had a very shallow draft, meaning they could sail into shallower bays and farther up rivers than other ships of their time. This led to the term Viking, which came from the Old Norse word vīk (meaning inlet or bay). [7] A person who went on raids was said to go "viking".

It is unknown what triggered the Vikings' expansion and conquests. This era was at the same time as the Medieval Warm Period (800 – 1300) and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age (about 1250 – 1850). The lack of pack-ice during their time may have allowed the Norsemen to go "a-viking" or "raiding". It is believed that the heathen Norsemen suffered from unequal trade practices by Christian merchants who were given preference through a Christian network of traders. A two-tiered system of pricing existed among merchants who secretly traded with the Norse heathens. Viking raids occurred both separately and together with regular trading expeditions.

Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there were not enough crops to feed everyone. This led to a hunt for more land to feed the ever-growing Viking population. Internal conflicts, especially during the period of conquest and settlement that followed the early raids, caused the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands. This meant that lower classes who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings went in search of their own lands. Those who settled Iceland created Europe's first modern republic with a yearly assembly of elected officials called the Althing.

The earliest date given for a Viking raid is 787 AD when, according to the Crónica anglosajona, a group of men from Norway sailed to Portland, in Dorset. There, a royal official mistook them for merchants. They killed him when he tried to lead them to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is, however, often given as 793. It was recorded in the Crónica anglosajona that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne:

"AD. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island (Lindisfarne), by rapine and slaughter." -Crónica anglosajona

In 794, according to the Annals of Ulster, there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona, which was followed in 795 by raids on the northern coast of Ireland. From bases there, the Norsemen attacked Iona again in 802, causing great slaughter amongst the Céli Dé Brethren, and burning the abbey to the ground.

The end of the Viking Age is traditionally marked in England by three major events: the failed invasion by Haraldr Harðráði, who was defeated by Saxon King Harold Godwinson in 1066 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Ireland, the capture of Dublin by Strongbow and his Hiberno-Norman forces in 1171 and in Scotland by the defeat of King Hákon Hákonarson at the Battle of Largs in 1263. Harold Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by William, Duke of Normandy, who was another descendant of Vikings. Normandy had been acquired by Normandos (Norsemen) in 911. Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries.

Most Scandinavian historians and archaeologists give a different definition. Instead, the Viking age is said to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the adoption of Christianity as the dominant religion. The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries. The end of the Viking Age in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030. They proclaimed Norway as a Christian nation, and Norwegians could no longer be called Vikings.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was especially hard-hit by Viking raiders, who could sail down the Seine without much difficulty. Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons, a string of Viking raids began, leading to a Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

In 911, French King Charles the Simple made an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo, a chieftain of either Norwegian or Danish origin. [8] Charles gave Rollo the title of duke and granted him possession of Normandy. In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and swore to defend the northern region of France against raids by other Viking groups. Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers identified themselves as French and brought the French language and their variant of French culture to England in 1066. With the Norman Conquest, they became the ruling aristocracy of Anglo-Saxon England, leading to the change from Old English to Middle English language.

At the start of the Viking age, the Vikings believed in the Norse religion. They believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, as well as Valhalla, a heaven for warriors. The lower class of society would go to a place called "hel", similar to life on earth. According to Viking beliefs, Viking chieftains would please their war-gods by their bravery, and would become "worth-ship" that is, the chieftain would earn a "burial at sea". They also performed land burials which often still included a ship, treasure, weapons, tools, clothing and even slaves and women buried alive with the dead chieftain, for his journey to Valhalla and adventure in the after-life. Poets composed sagas about the exploits of these chieftains, keeping their memories alive.

Freyr and his sister Freya were gods of "fertility", which means being able to grow. They made sure that people had many children and that the land produced plenty of crops. Some farmers even called their fields after Freyr, in the hope that this would ensure a good harvest. Toward the end of the Viking Age, more and more Scandinavians were converted to Christianity, often by force. The introduction of Christianity did not immediately end Viking voyages, but it may have been a factor that helped the Viking Age to an end.

Some of the most important trading ports during the period include both existing and ancient cities such as Jelling (Denmark), Ribe (Denmark), Roskilde (Denmark), Hedeby (Denmark, now Germany), Aarhus (Denmark), Vineta (Pomerania), Truso (Poland), Kaupang (Norway), Birka (Sweden), Bordeaux (France), Jorvik (England), Dublin (Ireland) and Aldeigjuborg (Russia).

In the late 19th century (1800s), Richard Wagner and other artists in the Romantic period made operas and other artwork about ancient Germanic culture. They liked the Vikings because they were not Greeks or Romans. They came up with the idea of Vikings wearing fur clothes and helmets with wings or horns on them and drinking out of hollowed-out animal horns. Some ancient Germans wore helmets with horns on them, but real Vikings did not. Wagner and his partners deliberately dressed the actors in the opera Ring des Nibelungen so they would look like ancient Germans and so the audience would feel like modern Germans came from medieval Vikings. [9] [10]


Midgard Historical Centre, Borre, Norway

Midgard Historical Centre in Borre lies next to Northern Europe’s largest assembly of monumental grave mounds from the Iron Age and Viking Age.

The centre opened in 2000 with the primary task of creating and spreading knowledge about the Viking Age in the Vestfold County.

The grave mounds in Borre constitute one of Norway’s most important national heritage sites, and it was a place of power and influence in Europe during the Viking Age. There were originally at least nine huge mounds in the area, as well as three cairns and at least 25 smaller cairns.

The Vikings were not only warriors, but skilful sailors and tradesmen. Their ships were built to withstand long journeys, and traces of Nordic settlements have been found as far away as Newfoundland in North America.

Many of the artefacts from Borre are of an eastern character and bear witness to a strong cultural influence from the countries around the Baltic Sea, Poland and Russia.

Finds from graves in Kaupang in the southern part of Vestfold show us that the Vikings were in close contact with today’s Central Europe, England, France, Ireland and the areas around the Mediterranean. Several coins found in Vestfold originate from Kufa in Iraq.

The Vikings were very fashion orientated they didn’t just bring anything back home, but they shopped for luxury items abroad and equipped themselves with the latest weaponry.

The museum has permanent exhibitions showing Viking finds from Borre and daily life in Viking times. Special exhibitions, seminars and lectures are organised regularly.

Outside, an archaeological playground fires children’s imagination and they can play Viking games, shoot with a bow and arrow and take part in “archaeological digs”.

A selection of books and souvenirs are available for sale in addition to a friendly café with excellent views of the park.


Homecoming and English: Past, Present, and Future

Homecoming & Family Weekend, October 15 th – 17 th , is an event for alumni, families, community members, and friends of CSU. It’s a time when we come together to celebrate the past, present, and future of Colorado State University. An integral part of that past, present, and future is the CSU English department. Recently there’s been lots of excitement with the hiring of new faculty, the arrival of the 2015 freshman class English majors, various engaging events, and our return to a refurbished Eddy Hall.

To celebrate that return, our homecoming along with CSU Homecoming, the English department will be hosting our inaugural Homecoming open house on Friday, October 16, 2015, 2:00-4:00 PM. We will be celebrating our return to the newly remodeled Eddy with music, food, fun, and, of course, words, beautiful words. Alumni and friends can make their way to the third floor and check in at Eddy 300, and we will have refreshments available in the Whitaker Conference Room. We will be offering tours of the building, with stops in the CSU Writing Center and a remodeled classroom. English Department Chair Louann Reid will offer some words of welcome and rededication at 3:00 PM, followed by a special presentation in honor of the occasion. We hope you can join us for this very special event.

And what about that past, present, and future? As we were packing up Eddy Hall to move out for the remodel, we discovered several copies of Words and Deeds, a newsletter edited by Jim Tanner and Jim Work in the 1970s, who described it this way:

Words and Deeds is a newsletter in which the energetic (if not divine) deeds of the Colorado State University Department of English become words for the world at large. Published two times a year in Fort Collins, Colorado distributed to our faculty, staff, students, friends, and competition.

Spring 2015 English Department Communications Intern Kara Nosal used these newsletters and other sources to put together a timeline that gives a sense of our history as a university and a department.

English Department Timeline

1879- Colorado State Agricultural College is born. It is comprised of twenty students and three professors in total.

1879- E.E. Edwards, president of the college, acts as the lone English teacher.

1886- Elizabeth G. Bell is the first English professor hired by the college.

1885- The library holds “1,000 bound volumes.”

1904- Virginia Corbett is named Professor of History and Literature.

1914- B.F. Coen heads the English and History Department while Corbett is reduced to an Assistant Professor. (Coen runs a tight ship! He requires each freshman to write a 150-page theme before moving on to upper-division classes)

1917- (From the Summer 1975 edition of Words and Deeds): During World War I, “All students who volunteered or were drafted to go to the front [lines] were to be given automatic passing grades and full credit in all classes.”

1920- Alfred Westfall and Ruth Wattles both become Associate Professors in the English and History Department.

1928- The first meeting of the “Scribbler’s Club”—an exclusive 12-member group for upperclassmen studying creative writing— is held

1929- There are twelve English faculty members

1935- Colorado Agricultural College changes its name to the Colorado State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts (Go! Fight! Win CSCAMA!)

1939-Willard O. Eddy is hired as an instructor in English, and History and English are separated into two distinct departments

1941-The large ballroom of Johnson Hall is used as a barracks to house some of the 1400 uniformed personnel on campus during the Second World War

1943- Alfred Westfall publishes, “What Speech Teachers May Do to Win the War” in the Quarterly Journal of Speech

1945- Colorado State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts changes its name to Colorado A & M (Interesting fact: Spring 2015 English Department Communication Intern Marina Miller’s great uncle was in the last class to graduate as Aggies)

1945- English faculty members number 13

1958-The Fine Arts Series is established after a fine-arts festival is held

In 1962, you could get your textbooks at the CSU bookstore and a carton of Salems.

1963- The original Eddy Hall is constructed

1965-1969- The Colorado State Review is established but due to funding cuts its initial run only lasts for four years

1975- The Intensive English Program (now INTO CSU) begins

1976- Colorado State Review is revived thanks to Wayne Ude and Bill Trembelay of the Creative Writing Program

1977- English faculty number 41 and 90 courses are offered

1979- Kate Keifer establishes the Writing Center in response to the national writing and literacy crisis, an educational drought in which many students arrived to college without adequate composition preparation

1981- Colorado State University is the first in the nation to create a computer-supported writing laboratory

1987 & # 8211 Alguien hizo un sándwich (no hemos descubierto mucha información sobre los años 80 y principios de los 90 en nuestra investigación, pero estamos bastante seguros de que esto es correcto)

1996- La profesora, traductora y poeta de CSU Mary Crow es nombrada poeta laureada por Colorado (más tarde sería nombrada nuevamente en 2000)

1997- Las famosas inundaciones de Fort Collins arrasan Eddy Hall, destruyendo 500,000 libros recolectados por profesores.

Foto de personas en bicicleta pasando por Eddy Hall durante la inundación de CSU de 1997 el 29 de julio de 1997. Foto cortesía de CSU Photography, Departamento de Servicios Creativos.

1997- El Currículo Básico de Artes y Ciencias (ASCC) establece las clases básicas estándar para todos los estudiantes en Artes Liberales y Ciencias Naturales.

2003: comienza el uso del Centro de escritura en línea recién establecido. Los estudiantes de las clases obligatorias de composición de Writing Arguments aprenden cómo descargar documentos importantes y cargar trabajos a los profesores.

Hoy: tenemos cuatro miembros del personal que trabajan arduamente y 82 miembros de la facultad

Verano 2015 & # 8211 ¡Se terminó el nuevo y mejorado Eddy Hall!

16 de octubre de 2015- Inaugural Homecoming English Open House, 2: 00-4: 00 PM

Nota de Kara: Por supuesto, este no es un cronograma completo del Departamento de Inglés. Mientras hojeaba páginas y páginas de artículos de periódicos, actas de reuniones de departamentos y boletines, comencé a comprender mejor el programa de inglés de CSU en su conjunto. Me di cuenta de cuántos de mis propios profesores anteriores han sido autores reconocidos a nivel nacional, ganadores de premios y revolucionarios en general, ayudando a que el programa de inglés prospere. De mi investigación deduje que el departamento de inglés tiene una larga historia de gente apasionada que constantemente busca más oportunidades para sus estudiantes. Sepa que hay mucho más en estos profesores de inglés de lo que parece, ¡incluso podrían estar dispuestos a compartir algunas de sus vidas pasadas con usted si lo pregunta!

Si tuviera que comenzar a enumerar a los miembros de la facultad que han modificado el Departamento de Inglés para mejor, tendría que enumerar a toda la facultad y la línea de tiempo sería de una milla. Nadie, pasado o presente, está exento de hacer de nuestro programa de inglés lo que es hoy.


Ver el vídeo: Toda la Historia de ODÍN. Documental Mitología. Sommer (Diciembre 2022).

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